UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon called on world leaders to agree on an agreement to curb global warming at the 69th session of the UN General Assembly on 23 September 2014 in New York. The next climate summit was held in Paris in 2015, the date of the Paris Agreement, which succeeded the Kyoto Protocol. The range of temperature projections partly reflects different projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. 22-24 Divergent projections contain different assumptions for future social and economic development (economic growth, population level, energy policy), which affects projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. 22-24 The sector also reflects uncertainty in the climate system`s response to past and future ThG emissions (measured in terms of climate sensitivity). 22-24 However, the Kyoto Protocol objectives are challenged by climate change deniers, who condemn strong scientific evidence of the human impact on climate change. An eminent scholar believes that these climate change deniers are « good » in violation of Roussau`s idea of the social contract, which is an implicit agreement between members of a society to coordinate efforts in the name of general social utility. The movement to reject climate change is hampering efforts to reach an agreement on climate change as a global collective society.  « There is no bridge, no path between now and the figure of $100 billion… One of the real sticking points here, which I think will decide whether we will leave the building with an agreement or not, is whether the developed countries are prepared to say at least that they will be in line with what they have provided so far.  At the conference, it was agreed to extend the duration of the Kyoto Protocol, which was due to expire at the end of 2012, until 2020, and to use the Durban platform in 2011, meaning that a successor to the protocol will be developed by 2015 and implemented by 2020. The wording adopted by the Conference contained for the first time the concept of « loss and damage », an agreement in principle that richer nations could be financially responsible to other nations for not reducing CO2 emissions.
 In 2001, the last meeting (COP6 bis) was held in Bonn at which the necessary decisions were taken. After some concessions, proponents of the protocol (under the leadership of the European Union) managed to secure the agreement of Japan and Russia by allowing for increased use of carbon sinks. Since the 2009 Copenhagen Climate Change Summit did not reach a new agreement that everyone was able to approve, the Doha amendment to the Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 2012. A « second commitment period » was thus introduced between 2013 and 2020, with new emission commitments at least as ambitious as those of the first period. It legally links industrialized countries to emission reduction targets, which by 2020 are at least 18% below 1990 levels. China, India, Indonesia and Brazil were not required to reduce their CO2 emissions. The other signatory states were not required to implement a common framework or specific measures, but to achieve an emissions reduction target for which they can benefit from a secondary market for multilateral electronic loans, which are traded multilaterally.  The Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) has enabled countries to host polluting industries and to buy ownership of their ecological virtues and virtues from other countries.  The United Nations confirmed that Nigeria had formally approved the climate treaty on 31 December 2020, the day before it expired, hours before the expiry of a deadline that requires 144 of the 192 signatories to ratify the agreement.