The agreement not only formalizes the process of drawing up national plans, but also contains a binding commitment to assess and review progress made under these plans. This mechanism will require countries to constantly update their commitments and ensure that there is no regression. The agreement is ambitious and offers all the instruments we need to combat climate change, reduce emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change. The Paris Agreement is an ambitious, dynamic and universal agreement. It covers all countries and emissions and is designed for total time. This is a monumental agreement. It strengthens international cooperation on climate change. It offers a way forward. The Paris Agreement and the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development are both universally accepted political visions, which mark a paradigm shift: from a top-down approach, from international mandates to a bottom-up process, from a country-centred implementation process.
However, the limited interaction between the processes of the two agendas, both globally and nationally, may hinder their effective implementation. In addition, aggregate analyses are lacking to improve understanding of potential overlaps, gaps and conflicts between the main instruments for implementing the two agreements, the NCCs and the SDGs. These analyses are essential to improve the political coherence of plans and strategies and improve the effectiveness of the implementation of both agendas. This document is intended to fill this gap. The pioneering Paris Agreement of 2015 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) requires all countries to keep global average temperature increases well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels by the end of the century and to make efforts to limit temperature increases to less than 1.5 degrees Celsius. For the first time, all countries recognize the need to achieve global greenhouse gas emissions « as quickly as possible » and to fully decarbonize their economies this century in order to achieve global greenhouse gas emissions by zero. In Paris, negotiators have achieved what can reasonably be expected from a global climate agreement. Now scientists, engineers, businessmen, policy makers, politicians and civil society must make transformation into low-carbon societies a reality. This agreement is a clear invitation from governments to be ready to implement the 2030 sustainable development agenda.
To combat climate change, countries adopted the Paris Agreement at COP21 on 12 December 2015 in Paris. The agreement came into force less than a year later. In this agreement, all countries agreed to limit the increase in global temperature to a level well below 2 degrees Celsius and to aim for 1.5 degrees Celsius in the face of serious risks. We have an agreement and we now have a chance to achieve our goal. We cannot say that without an agreement.